Well, if you guys have any specific questions, I can pull out my toxicilogy book and look things up for you...
But to answer some things:
Raw eggs are bad for dogs in the same way they're bad for people: salmonella. Dogs are more resistant to it than people because they build up their immune system with a lifetime of licking floors and stuff, but that doesn't make it a good idea. Also, dogs that aren't sick themselves can pass salmonella through in their poop and potentially make people sick, especially kids who like to play in the dirt and touch their mouths. Cooked eggs have pretty much the same nutritional value, so what's to lose?
Garlic and onion are toxic, and not just to dogs. They both have the same toxic principle in them, that can cause anemia if too much is eaten. That said, there's nothing special about the toxicity in dogs. You would get anemia too if you ate a whole bellyful of the stuff, you'd get anemic too. It's all about how much they eat. The only real time we see problems is when a tiny dog gets a big dose of onion. If the amount of garlic you feed your dogs is similar to what you'd be willing to eat (adjusted for body size), then you're OK. Still, I wouldn't feed it on purpose.
Carrots are fine. Fish oil is fine. The reason raw fish (from the Pacific Northwest) is bad is because there's a parasite that lives in it, and fish oil is processed so that isn't a concern.
Chocolate and anything with caffeine in it are no-no's too, though unless you're talking about unsweetened baking chocolate, it takes a LOT to be life-threatening. Dogs metabolize caffeine and Theobromine (the good stuff in chocolate) many times slower than people, so they're far more sensitive to it.
Raisins and grapes are an absolute no-no, ever. They don't even know for sure what chemical causes the toxicity yet, and there are reports of dogs going into kidney failure over very small amounts, and some dogs are unpredictably more sensitive than others. It's just not worth the risk.
Basically, for most potentially "bad" foods, it's all about the dose. In moderation, these things can be OK (though perhaps not ideal). In excess, any food can cause a problem. For example, large amounts of high-fat foods, even as a one-time treat, can be very risky-- they'll give some dogs pancreatitis if they get a huge high-fat meal all at once